Category: Achaemenid Phoenicia

An open-work ivory panel of a human-headed sphinx, c.900-700 BCE, found at Fort Shalmaneser in northern Iraq.


Under the Achaemenid Empire

Rule: 539 B.C.E. – 332 B.C.E.

Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Phoenicia in 539 BCE. The Persians divided Phoenicia into four vassal kingdoms: Sidon, Tyre, Arwad, and Byblos. Though these vassal kingdoms prospered and furnished fleets for the Persian kings, Phoenician influence declined after this period. It is likely that much of the Phoenician population migrated to Carthage and other colonies following the Persian conquest. In 350 or 345 BCE, a rebellion in Sidon was crushed by Artaxerxes III.

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