249⇌250 CE ║ Æ Sestertius ║ Decius ║ Rome mint ║ RIC IV, 112a

Æ Sestertius struck between c. 249⇌250 CE at Rome, under the reign of Decius, as Augustus of the Roman Empire ║ Cf.: RIC IV, 112a

Decius ║ Cf.: RIC IV, 112a

Period: Roman Empire “Imperium Rōmānum”
Reign: Decius “Gaius Messius Quintus Decius”
Dating: c. 249250 CE
Nominal value: AR Sestertius
Mint City: Rome, Latium
Obverse Inscription: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG
Obverse nominative: “Imperator Caesar Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus”
Obverse translation: “Supreme commander (Imperator), Caesar Messius Quintus Trajan Decius, emperor (Augustus).”
Obverse Design: Laureate, cuirassed bust of Decius, right.
Reverse Inscription: DACIA | S C
Reverse nominative: “Dacia Senatus Consultum”
Reverse translation: “Dacia. Decree of the senate.”
Reverse Design: Dacia standing left, holding Dacian standard surmounted by wolf's head (Draco); S C across fields.
Metal: Bronze
Average Diameter: 27,9 mm (this specimen)
Average Weight: 12,55 g (this specimen)
References: RIC IV, 112a

Personal note:

It seems that many renown foreign 'sources' (authors of history books, numismatic catalogs, etc) to the customs of these lands are fighting to denigrate the Dacians, especially the sacred symbols, misleading the appreciation of details, inventing all kinds of symbols non-existent in the Dacian tradition, like associating Draco with a ass's head. But I will always stand up and fight for the sacred symbols of my ancient ancestors!

Latin: Imperator Caesar Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus.
Supreme commander (Imperator), Caesar Messius Quintus Trajan Decius, emperor (Augustus).

Latin: Dacia. Senatus Consultum.
Dacia. Decree of the senate.

IMP IMPERATOR The adopted title to mean ‘Emperor’ meant ‘leader of the army’/‘Commander’ to the Romans. Under the Republic it came to designate a victorious general whose success was enthusiastically acclaimed by his troops. In Imperial times it was often used to enumerate the victories of the emperor during the course of his reign, regardless of whether or not he was personally in command. The award was generally taken on becoming Emperor and renewed whenever a particularly important victory was celebrated. The numbers of these acclamations are sometimes included in coin inscriptions (e.g. IMP II, IMP III, etc.), allowing dating of coins to a very short period. Other Emperors made little use of the title and only assumed the initial award.
C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS CAESAR MESSIVS QVINTVS TRAJAN DECIVS Caesar Messius Quintus Trajan Decius - name of the reigner.
AVG AVGVSTVS Augustus was the title that actually meant 'Emperor'. The first Emperor made the title ('Revered') almost a personal name and it was assumed on ascension by each successive ruler. The honorific title was bestowed on Octavian by the Senate on 16 January 27 BCE and thereafter adopted by all of his successors as an indication of their supreme authority. Until the late Empire, Emperors were both Caesar and Augustus but toward the end the title Caesar was dropped or reserved for the junior members of the imperial family. When there were two emperors, the plural is sometimes shown as AVGG. More rarely AVGGG indicated there were three rulers. [On some earlier coins of the Imperatorial period the abbreviation 'AVG' may be used to designate membership of the Augures, one of Rome's four principal priestly colleges]

Events within the Roman Republic:

CCXLIX - 249 C.E.

Trajan Decius puts down a revolt in Moesia and Pannonia. Loyal legionaries proclaim him emperor, and he leads them into Italy.

Battle of Verona: Decius defeats and kills Emperor Philip the Arab.

Decius begins persecuting Christians, and others refusing to participate in Emperor worship.

CCL - 250 C.E.

A group of Franks penetrate as far as Tarragona in Spain (approximate date).

The Goths under King Cniva invade Moesia. They cross the Danube and lay siege to Novae and Marcianopolis.

Battle of Augusta Traiana: The Romans lose the battle against the Goths.

Cniva lays siege to Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv). After a long resistance, Cniva conquers the city and slays its one hundred thousand inhabitants.

The Alamanni drive the Romans from the modern area of Donau-Ries.

An epidemic begins in Ethiopia, moves into Egypt and the Roman colonies in North Africa, and spreads through the Roman Empire (named the Plague of Cyprian, after St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage).

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